ATP

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  • Did you ever wonder how our body makes energy during a sport like cross country?
  • When we eat, we gain glucose, which then enters the first step of our process, Glycolysis.
  • In glycolysis, glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid with two ATP.  Because oxygen is available, pyruvic oxidation will occur. This all takes place in the cytoplasm.
  • Pyruvate
  • Glucose
  • Pyruvate
  • NAD+
  • ATP is invested so it loses a phosphate and becomes ADP
  • NADH
  • FAD+
  • FADH2
  • The next step is the Kreb Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle).  This process happens in the mitochondrial matrix. The Pyruvic acid is turned into acetyl COA, which sent through the Kreb Cycle, makes NADH, FADH2, 2 ATP and CO2. Coenzyme A acts as a catalyst during this phase.
  • Kreb Cycle
  • Pyruvate
  • Acetyl CoA
  • Carrier Proteins like NAD+ and FAD+ pick up hydrogen ions and electrons for the ETC
  • ATP
  • Co2
  • NAD+
  • NADH
  • FAD+
  • FADH2
  • Next is the Electron Transport Chain. At this Step the NADH and FADH2 drop of electrons at the Electron Transport Chain and Protons inside the Matrix. The electrons then power the Proton Pumps and transport the Protons into the intermembrane space, which is in between the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The Protons then create a gradient and shoot out through ATP synthase. This process makes at most 34 ATP.
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