In the 1800s, Italy resources were scarce and there were few jobs. While falling death rates and high birth rates created population pressure in the region. Diseases and natural disasters also played a part. This combined along with illiteracy, and an uneven tax structure weighed heavily on the people of the country.
One of the reasons that the Germans left Germany was because of the disasters happening. In the 1800s there was much tragedy like Renard coal mine disaster, it happened in 1881. Then there was the Kronsco Odrzańskie tornado that happened a few years later. Both of those disasters have caused over 100 deaths.
Thousands of Polish immigrated to the United States to escape imperial oppression and economic misfortune. During this period, Poland was not a country but was divided into three and owned by Russia, Austria, and Germany. When the Polish arrived in America, they settled in the Midwest and the cities of the Northeast. Others moved to rural areas.
French immigrants came to the United States in the late 1800s because of its atmosphere of freedom and its potential prosperity. French citizens came to America wanting to have their freedom.
Around this time, those successful Irish played their hand at business and politics. Some Irishmen become ward bosses for the political machines and parties in their cities. They were the mediators between the political parties.
By the late 1800s, Chinese immigrants were employed mainly in the garment, boot, shoe and cigar industries. Many were laundry workers. These were not the professions that drew them to the U.S. Chinese also worked in the gold, silver and coal mines of several western states and were also employed as domestic servants and workers in the wool and metal industries.