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Each DNA strand contains a unique sequence or code of genetic information.
Did you know DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid?
Today we will be talking about DNA.
There are 4 nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
Nucleotides and Nitrogenous Bases
Each Nucleotide is made up of 3 basic components: 5-carbon sugar called called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
DNA is made up of units called Nucleotides.
Adenine forms a base pair with thymine, and cytosine forming a base pair with guanine.
DNA consists of two strands. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds.
The ends of a DNA molecule are called 3' and 5' ends, based on the numbering of carbon atoms in deoxyribose sugars.
When two strands assemble in a double helix, the two strands always face in opposite directions; the 5' end of one strand is paired with the 3' end of the other strand.
3' and 5'
Chromosomes and Proteins
Eukaryotic chromosomes contain DNA wrapped around proteins called histones. The strands of nucleosomes are tightly coiled and supercoiled to form chromosomes.
Most Prokaryotes have only a single circular chromosome. The chromosome holds most of the organism's DNA.
Transcription and Translation
During transcription, RNA polymerase uses on strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a strand of RNA.
During translation, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.