Circe tests Odysseus by telling him to receive a prophecy from Teirisias in order to have his men released, a deed no normal man can complete. she sends them a wind to carry them to oceanus
using the winds provided by Circe, the son of Laertes in the line of Zeus and his men sail to Oceanus, a supernatural land that no ordinary man would dare enter.
upon arriving into the region always wrapped in mist and cloud, the narrator personifies fearful night, describing Oceanus as a land in which mortals are enveloped by it.
odysseus and his men make sacrifices to summon the shades of the dead. odysseus promises to sacrifice a black ram to teiresius which can symbolize protection in death
many shades of dead appear out of Erebus (personification) which displays one of the motifs in the story, which is grief.
odysseus speaks to elpenor, who asks for a proper burial, and threatens odysseus with anger of the gods put down on you and causing the gods to intervene again. odysseus then sees his mother, a time he shows self-restraint and waits to speak to her.