"Italy will surely rule Africa. Us Italians are far superior..."
The Crimean War
"More land for us..." *Laughs wickedly*
The interest in, and control of land based off of location and geographical advantages is called geopolitics. The scene above is geopolitically desirable because of it's location near the sea, it's resources, natural boundary of mountains, and it's river. Hawaii is geopolitically desirable because of it's location and trade port between the U.S, China, and East India.
The Sepoy Mutiny
The Berlin Conference was in 1844-1845 and leaders from different lands attended to discuss the distribution of Africa. Although the conference determined Africa's fate, no African leaders were allowed to attend.
The Suez Canal
"Wow. We took their cotton, made it into clothes, and now we're selling it back to them. How smart. But we always take the same route. Whoever owns this canal must be rich!"
That small piece of land is called the Crimean peninsula and is controlled by the Ottoman empire. This land was desirable by many, and still is. The Russians wanted this because it would provide them with a warm weathered port, and land in the Black Sea. However, the Ottomans already owned the land, thus starting the Crimean war in 1853. The Crimean war was between the Ottomans and the Russians, but France and Britain helped the Ottomans to prevent Russia from gaining land, prestige and power.
The Tobacco Boycott
The Sepoy Mutiny was the rebellion in 1857, of all the Indian soldiers who were working for Britain. , who were called Sepoys. The Mutiny started when it was rumored that the cartridges the British supplied were greased with pork and beef fat. Consuming either was against the Muslim, and Hindu religion. and due to the trust, or lack thereof, between the Indians and Russians, the Sepoys revolted. This resulted in war between India and Britain.
"Nooooooo, I have sinned and consumed the sacred cow."
The Suez canal was a human-made waterway that connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The canal was built by the Egyptians using French money and opened in 1869, however, Egypt found itself unable to pay the money back, and Britain oversaw the financial properties of the canal. This led to British occupation in Egypt.
In 1890, a Persian ruler sold a concession to a Britain to export Persian tobacco. This action outraged Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, a supporter of the modernization of Persia. He helped set up a tobacco boycott by the Persians. The boycott worked and the ruler was forced to decline the concession.