Newton was sure that all physical objects were affected equally by the same forces. It ruled motion of planets and all matter in earth and space. In 1687, Newton published his ideas in a work called “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”. It was one of the most important scientific books ever written.
Galileo was interested in astronomy and admire the Dutch lensmaker. He published a book about Jupiter having 4 moons and things other scientist didn't even know about. It didn't shatter Aristotle's theory about the moon and stars were made of pure perfect substances.
Robert Boyle pioneered chemistry and the use of the scientific method. Boyle proposed that matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways. Boyles law explains how the volume, temp, and pressure of gas effects each other.