When the cell swells in a hypotonic environment, the volume can increase so much that the cell bursts! The increase in volume also increases the distance from the membrane to the cell center. Incoming molecules need to travel a greater distance and the cell could starve!
When the cell shrinks in a hypertonic environment, the cell lacks water and can't carry out reactions. The cell will die!
A great real world example of the environments negetivly impacting the cell is the GIZMO simulation
Hey I remember that!
In the Gizmo simulation, on admission the patient had low oxygen in there blood.
This is because the chlorine gas created a hypotonic environment in the patients cells. The cells swelled up, the distance oxygen had to travel increased, and the cell were not able to get enough oxygen.
This problem was treated in part with the diuretic injection because the injection created a hypertonic environment to pull the access water out. The injection returned the cell to it's normal volume.
As you can see after the injection, the blood arterial oxygen level increased!