These rules are a direct attack on my own power and rights!
I've appointed my own bishop for Milan.
I'm going to appoint a rival bishop!
Pope Gregory VII had very strong ideas about his power as a pope. He made a list of rules declaring that he had supreme authority over Church and secular leaders, had the power to choose bishops, and claimed to have the power to remove emperors from the throne.
I hereby declare that you have been excommunicated from the Christian Church.
Henry IV, the emperor at the time, did not like the Pope’s rules. He saw them as a direct attack on his own power and rights.
I'm on King Henry's side!
I'm on Pope Gregory's side!
The clash began when Henry ignored the pope’s rules and named his own bishop for Milan, Italy. Then, Pope Gregory appointed a rival bishop.
Please forgive me!
Next, Henry tried to remove Gregory as pope. As a result of this, Gregory exocommunicated Henry. Excommunicate means to exclude a person from a church or religious community.
Across Europe, members of the clergy and secular rulers took sides.
The conflict ended by Henry visiting the pope and he forgave him. But, the conflict still continued. Henry took revenge on the pope by marching his army to Rome and forcing the pope from office.Years after the Pope and the emperors conflict, the Concordat of Worms gave the Church sole authority to appoint bishops. It also allowed emperors to give fiefs to bishops in order to win their loyalty. Although it did work, popes and rulers continued to have conflicts.