I am Charlemagne. My battle victories are proof of God's blessing. I must thank him by improving the Church.
I crown you the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire!
I believe that only the pope could crown a rightful emperor.
I think the Church made you emperor and its you duty to help the Church help God
Well I think you made me emperor and you have to assist me to do God's work.
Charlemagne was a devout Christian. His victories were thought to be proof of God's blessing and in return he set out to improve the Church. In 799 A.D., Pope Leo Ⅲ left Rome to Charlemagne's court for protection after rivals back home. Charlemagne provided protection for Pope Leo and returned to the Holy Roman Empire.
Only I can choose bishops and I can dethrone the emperor and I have full authority over the church.
How insulting! I'm not going to follow his rules anyways.
When Charlemagne visited the Holy Roman Empire, Pope Leo crowned him emperor. As a result of Charlemagne's coronation, there were two lasting effects. It strengthened the Church in Western Europe by establishing that only the pope could crown the emperor. This disagreement over who could crown an emperor worsened the growing division between the Eastern and Western churches.
That is it! I will remove Gregory as pope.
Ha! Ha! I got my own bishop and he is not there to stop me!
Nice try! Time to excommunicate King Henry and free all of his subjects!
How dare he! I will send my own bishop to capture King Henry's bishop!
Charl believed that God had made him emperor in order to do God's work on Earth and it was the pope's duty to assist him in that work. However, Pope Leo believed that the Church made Charlemagne emperor and it was the emperor's duty to assist the Church in doing God's work on Earth. These different views lead to a dramatic clash between an emperor and the pope.
We are on Pope Gregory's side!
Concordat of Worms
Wait! Look, it's an agreement between the pope and the emperor.
We are on King Henry's side!
In 1073 A.D., Pope Gregory Ⅶ issued as list of rules declaring his supreme authority over both the Church and secular leaders. He also claimed that the pope alone had the power to choose bishops and is able to remove the emperor from the throne. These rules were a direct attack on King Henry IV's power and rights. This set the stage for a clash of wills between the two powerful men.
The clash began when Henry ignored the pope’s rules and named his own bishop for the city of Milan, Italy. In response Pope Gregory appointed a rival bishop. Next Henry tried to remove Gregory as pope. Pope Gregory then excommunicated Henry. In addition, the pope freed Henry's subjects from their feudal oaths of loyalty to the emperor. Across Europe, members of the clergy and secular rulers took sides.
The Church and the Holy Roman Empire reached an agreements called the Concordat of Worms. This agreement gave power to the Church the sole authority to appoint bishops. But it also allowed emperors to give fiefs to bishops in order to win their loyalty. Despite the agreement, popes and rulers continued to have conflicts.