I hereby give thyself and all popes to come, supreme authority over all leaders. Also, only we can choose bishops. Lastly, we can remove emperors from the throne
You are now a bishop!
Thank you King Henry!
Why is he doing this? He knows he's not supposed to.
Pope! The King of the Holy Roman Empire has appointed a bishop. Isn't that against your rules?
How dare he! He will pay...
Pope Gregory VII established new rules for popes and emperors. These new rules were seen as a direct attack on King Henry IV and his empire.
What?! You can't do that!
I can do that. I'm also freeing your subjects from their oaths of loyalty.
I'm excommunicating you, Henry.
King Henry IV was mad that Pope Gregory VII said he couldn't appoint bishops so he appointed one anyways. This was seen as a direct attack to the Pope, Church, and Byzantine Empire.
Get off your balcony! We are removing you from office.
When the pope found out that the king had directly disobeyed him, he was very mad. And first appointed a rival bishop.
Then the pope excommunicated the king. To excommunicate means to exclude a person from a church or a religious community. Additionally, the pope freed the kings subjects from their feudal oaths.
Henry wanted revenge on the pope. So, with his vast army, marched to Rome and forced the pope from office. The power struggle between popes and rulers continued long after Gregory and Henry died.
Eventually an agreement called the Concordat of Worms. This gave the Church the sole authority to appoint bishops. But, emperors could give fiefs to bishops to win their loyalty. Despite this agreement, popes and rulers continued to have conflicts.