Charlemagne was a devout Christian and a Christian Ruler. Furthermore, his goal was to improve the church to thank god for his blessings which he achieved by ordering priests, monks, and nuns to live strictly by Church rules. Next, Charlemagne and the Pope worked together after Pope Leo the third fled across the Alps to safety under Charlemagne's court.
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Then, Charlemagne traveled to Rome to support the Pope which he was then rewarded by being crowned emperor. The two lasting effects of the coronation were that it strengthened the power of the Church in Western Europe and it worsened the growing division between the Eastern and Western Churches which eventually let to a complete split between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.
Charlemagne believed that god had made him emperor in order to do Gods work on Earth. The Pope believed that the Church had made Charlemagne emperor. 200 years later these different views lead to a dramatic clash between emperors and the popes.
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In 1073 a monk named Hildebrand became Pope Gregory VII and had strong ideas about the powers of the pope and issued a list of rulers declaring his supreme authority over both Church and secular leaders. Gregory declared the pope alone has the power to choose bishops. In addition, he even claimed to have the power to remove emperors from the throne.
When King Henry ignored the pope’s rules and named his own bishop for the city, a dramatic clash arose between the two. First, Pope Gregory appointed a rival bishop. Next, Henry tried to remove Gregory as a pope. Therefore, Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry. As a result, across Europe, members of the clergy and secular rulers took sides.
The conflict between Pope Gregory and and King Henry ended when they reached an agreement called the Concordat of Worms. This agreement gave the Church the sole authority to appoint bishops. However, it also allowed emperors to give fiefs to bishops in order to win their loyalty. Alternatively, this was not a success and the popes and rulers continued to have conflicts.