After the death of Muhammed, his followers had to choose a new leader to rule the Muslim Empire. They chose Abu Bakr as the first caliph.
Schism Between Sunni and Shi’ah
All Muslim Rulers are okay!
Rulers must be related to Muhammed!
The “rightly guided” caliphs led the government using Muhammed's methods. They spread Islam outside of Arabia, bringing new goods, lands, and resources for the Muslim people.
The Battle of Tours
Muhammed's cousin, Ali, became the 4th caliph after Uthman was murdered. Some important Muslims challenged Ali's rule and a civil war had broken out. In 611, Ali had been murdered by a former supporter.
The Golden Age
Muslims began splitting into groups as they argued over who should rule. Sunnis believed any Muslim could rule while Shi'ahs believed only Muhammed's descendants could rule.
In 711, Umayyad caliphs sent armies to Spain. At the Battle of Tours in 732, Frankish armies made the Muslims retreat out of France. This battle marked the farthest the Muslims had gotten into Europe, outside of Spain. Muslims established Islamic states in Spain that lasted for almost 800 years.
After the Umayyad dynasty fell, the Abbasid dynasty began their reign. They moved the capitol to Baghdad and ruled for 500 years, bringing on a golden age of achievements, learning and culture.