The 14th amendment was ratified in 1868, it gave citizenship and protection to anyone who was a U.S. citizen no matter what their color is. This amendment was enforced after the Brown v. Board of Education case, where they ruled it was unconstitutional to have separate schools because black schools were in really bad condition.
This amendment was created during the Reconstruction period. The 13th amendment abolished slavery, but they needed the 14th to ensure that African Americans have equal rights and protection. This amendment was used to get rid of things like Jim Crow Laws and segregated schools, it was a major step in helping end the mistreatment towards blacks.
Color doesn't matter when it comes to the Constitution