The Berlin Conference was the meeting of 14 European nations to further discuss the division of Africa. No representatives from Africa attended the meeting. They came to several agreements; one was that any European country could claim land in Africa.
The Boers, or Dutch settlers, inhabited southern Africa. They came across diamond and gold, and claimed it for their nation. However, some people came along, and wished to take their riches. To prevent them from having any, they tried to keep them from gaining political rights, until a rebellion was attempted. The Boers blamed the British for this, and went to war with them. The British ended up victorious, and the Boers joined their union.