The English Government during the English Civil War, which lasted between 1642-1649 and between Cavaliers and Roundheadd was based off on Magna Carta, Trial by Jury, and Common Law.
Elizabeth the I, James the I, and Charles the I were all leaders of England during this time, and while Elizabeth tolerated dissenters and founded the Anglican Church, James and Charles both saw themselves as absolute rulers, and fought Parliament for money.
Charles was also forced to sign the Petition of Rights, which contained 4 important laws: No imprisonment without due cause, Not levy taxes without Parliament consent, No housing soldiers in private homes, and no partial law in peacetime. He also caused the English Civil War by fighting Parliament over money, which was between 1642-1649.
During the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell led the Roundheads against the king in the English Revolution, as well as defeated the Cavaliers and Established the Commonwealth of England, and executed Charles I afterwards.
The Restoration was when the people of England wanted a monarch back to rule them. Charles II was asked to become the king during the Restoration, and he passed the Habeas Corpus, which made it so that a person under arrest had to be brought to a judge or into a court. The Restoration was ended because James II was a catholic, and his wife gave birth to a catholic heir, and the people didn't want a catholic king.
The Glorious Revolution happened when William and Mary came to England, and were non-violent when they attempted to become King and Queen , and signed the English Bill of Rights in 1689. The English Bill of Rights makes the Parliament's power superior to the monarch's, and made England a Constitutional Monarchy, which is a government where the monarch's power is limited by law and legislature.