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The pea plants can have either red or white flowers
This means that there are two varieties of genes, which are known as alleles
The red flower trait is dominant and the white flower trait is recessive
The dominant trait is represented using 'Big R' and the recessive trait is represented by 'little r'
If a pea plant has two red flowers, it is homozygous dominant, and two white flowers means it is homozygous recessive
If a pea plant has one red and one white flower it is heterozygous
The phenotype is the physical appearance, so one has the appearance of red flowers and the other of white flowers
The genotype of the flowers are their alleles, so for the red flower the genotype is RR and for the white flower its rr
The offspring that these two parents produce is known as the f1 generation
The f2 generation is the generation produced by the f1 generation