Computers use code language such as Unicode and ASCII to encode text
ASCII and Unicode both use transistors. One transistor is one bit; 8 transistors is a byte
If a transistor is on its value is 1. If its off its 0
This means if the computer were using ASCII, which has 7bits, the numbers would be 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1
Binary is base 2. This means instead of an increasing power of 10 it has an increasing power of 2. So instead of going 1, 10, 100 it goes 1,2,4,8,16 and so on.
Each letter or symbol has a number corresponding with it. For an example, the letter 'A' is the number 65. So, the computer would see which numbers in the 7 bits add up to 65. This would be 64 and 1
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The numbers which add up would become the 1’s and the rest would become 0. So, 65 would become 1000001. This is how it works with every letter. Though there is also Unicode. Its practically the same except it goes up to 32 bits. So it has different languages and a lot of emojis and symbols