The people living on the Arabian Peninsula in the 600s had to be tough. Where they lived was mostly a sea of sun scorched sand that had little shelter,shade,and water.
Life After Muhammad
Muhammad was born into a family of Mecca´s ruling tribe about 570. When Muhammad was a young man he gained reputation for intelligence honesty and kindness. He worked as a trader for a wealthy widow merchant Khadijah.
Life After Muhammad (continued)
The Qur´an is a holy book for Muslims that has their laws,and practices. Muslims believe that the Qur´an contains the flawless words of Allah as shown to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. The Qur´an teaches that there is only one god.
The Umayyads & Abbasid
After Muhammad died the Muslim almost collapsed because he died before he could name a leader. His followers disagreed when picking a leader, but a few leading Muslims acted . Muhammad´s step father in law promised to follow Muhammad's example.
They succeeded in establishing a large Muslim empire. They had to face two empires the Byzantine and the Persian empire. The two empires were exhausted from fighting wars while the Muslims were forming a powerful army .
The Umayyads is a family that gained power after the last caliph died . The Umayyads expanded the Muslim empire which caused the islam to spread into new areas. The Abbasids are the rivals of the Umayyads