After Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr became the ruler of Islam. He and three other caliphs unified Arabia carried their religion beyond the Arabian Peninsula.
Schism between Sunni and Shi'ah
The leader of the Umayyad dynasty helped the Muslim empire expand. More people began joining the Muslim religion, and they also started advancing in science, arts, and technology.
The Battle of Tours
After Muhammad's death, Ali agreed to become the fourth caliph. He served well in war, but when he made a negotiation in his last war, he lost followers and was killed.
The Golden Age
There were two types of Muslims that separated because of their different opinions. The Sunni's accepted the new leader of the Umayyad Dynasty, while the Shi'ah refused to do so, because they wanted Muhammad's son-in-law to be the next leader.
The Battle of Tours that occurred between the Muslims and the people in Spain was a huge battle. The king of France took over the Muslims, where they started to thrive.
The Muslims lost a lot to Persia, but when the Abbasid Dynasty began, they thrived, and gained many achievements and advances.