Al-Andalus flourished under the Umayyad dynasty, developing a thriving economy. The state reached its peak under the leadership of Abd al-Rahman III. At the time he assumed power in 912, rebel Arab leaders had been challenging the authority of the Umayyad dynasty.
A dynasty of Turkish Muslims, known as the Ottomans, emerged as frontier warriors against the Byzantines in Anatolia, or what is now Turkey, around the 1290s. These warriors and their leader, Osman, captured many Byzantine cities, fueling the Ottomans’ expansion into the Balkans in southeastern Europe. In 1453, the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by capturing Constantinople.
The Ottomans formed the largest Muslim empire of the time. However, it was not the only one. The Safavids, a Shi’ite dynasty, became rivals of the Sunni Ottomans.