The last remaining Umayad prince,Abd al-rahman lll fled to this region in 755-. He later established a state named al-Andulas that flourished under his rule. Abd al-rahman lll transformed Cordoba by building palaces and extend the Great Mosque. Cordoba was grand center of learning with many books.In 1492, Christians took over the last Muslim city ending eight hundred years of rule.
The Mughal Empire
The Ottoman Empire was finally coming into power and one of its greatest Sultan was Suleyman I. He conquered parts of northern Africa and eastern Europe with his powerful army. The Ottoman Empire also had lots of religious tolerance. They sadly had social classes that determined what you could or could not do.
Science and Philosophy
The first emperor, Ismail of the Safavid Empire was youthful and united Persian kingdoms. Ismail rapidly expanded the empire by invading The Ottoman Empire causing many wars. The Safavid Empire was in the center of trade route making them have a great economy. They also appreciated great art and architecture. Their rule was grand but they sadly were taking over by a group of Afghan warriors.
Art and Architecture
There was also another group of people as the same time as the Safavid and Ottoman Empires, there was the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire had a very young ruler named Akbar the Great. Akbar the Great made an effective government and tried to to settle the conflicts between Muslims and Hindus by mixing both of their religions. Then in 1857 the British took over the empire.
Muslim scholar have done many thing that has influenced us today. Even though Greek mathematicians invented most concepts of math Muslim scholars further developed things like geometry, trigonometry, and algebra. The also helped in the field of medicine by making a book of treatments and showed how to preform surgeries. Ibn Rushd, a philosopher, tried to harmonized the ideas of Aristotle and Plato.
Many Islamic empires had many beautiful buildings. One of the most iconic parts Islamic empire are the dome ceiling with minarets. They had decorations with calligraphy and arabesque. Unlike in other religious buildings Mosques didn't have any statues. Muslim thought that statues of animal or humans intimated God's act of creation.