We, the Seljuk Turks, will expand our territory and so establish a new dynasty!
The First Crusade
Jerusalem is OURS!!!
The Second Crusade
Go and NEVER come back!
The Seljuk Turks were a central Asian people who had been migrating into Muslim lands for centuries. Their conquest began when they took the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. After that, they were eager to expand their territory, but as they did, their advance alarmed the Christians, which led them to start the crusades.
The Third Crusade
We promise to live in peace with each other.
Four nobles led close to 30,000 crusaders trough Anatolia toward Palestine in the First Crusade. After Antioch fell to the Christians, the crusaders continued to Jerusalem. The city surrendered and Muslims and Jews were either killed or sold into slavery. The Christians won the First Crusade.
King Richard I of England
Take all Muslims to prison and KILL them there!!!
One reason the crusaders won in earlier battles was that there was already a lack of unity among Muslims. When Muslims joined together and captured Edessa, the crusaders answered by mounting the Second Crusade. They sent two armies, one German and one French, both of which failed, before retreating and letting Muslims win the Second Crusade.
A great sultan named Salah al-Din renewed the fight against the crusades. His army took back Acre and Jerusalem. Shocked by the Muslims victory, they sent King Richard to lead the battle against the sultan, winning over Palestine. He continued to Jerusalem, but by then his armies and the ones of the sultan were weak, and soon they signed a peace treaty.
King Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart, was the one who led the fight against Salah al-Din. He started out by forcing the surrender of Acre. Then, he continued to Jerusalem. But his army was too weak to take the city back, and so he signed a peace treaty with the sultan. Muslims agreed to let Christian Pilgrims enter Jerusalem.
The crusades to the Middle East continued for another 100 years. Some crusades, such as the Children's Crusade, were popular movements of poor people rather than organized military campaigns. However, none of the later crusades of the Christians succeeded in recapturing Jerusalem. Muslims were the only ones who recapured some of their land.