Some of the many areas subject to change during the Renaissance were art, literature and technology. Due to the introduction of realism and perspective, art was capable of displaying more emotion than previously viable. Books began to discuss Humanist ideas encouraging readers to deviate from religion, which had a hold on society at the time, without directly defying the church. The creation of the printing press made books cheaper to make and purchase, granting the middle class the ability to possess them. During the Renaissance, society began to develop new, innovative ways to improve artistry as a whole; new beliefs were introduced to the population through literature and more of society was given the ability to learn and study from books.
Wait.. Why am I a painting??
Some time after the church began to sell indulgences 95 theses were nailed to the church's door, 95 complaints, these were written by Martin Luther who wished for change in the church. Despite knowing he was risking his life as punishment for his opposition to the church he put these theses up for everyone to see. This gave the people a voice and confidence in that voice, encouraging them to speak out even if it took time, and eventually the church attempted to make changes.
In an attempt to find an easier route to India, European explorers traveled west and discovered the Americas as a result. This opened communications to the whole world. As the world began to interact they began to trade, benefitting each other and themselves. Animals, food, objects such as pots and even diseases were exchanged. A particular trade pattern formed a triangle between Europe, Africa and America as they traded for slaves, manufactured goods, tobacco and more.
You're going the wrong way!!!
Many things were traded during the Columbian exchange, this interaction caused various changes for everyone. New animals changed the landscape based on their habits, such as eating grass down to the root, stopping it from growing any further. Animals also allowed for easier transportation, an example of these animals would be horses, causing people such as Native Americans to become less nomadic, as they could find new hunting grounds without moving their homes. New crops provided more food and a wider variety of it. Diseases were also transferred between people which caused populations to suffer.
I'll trade you a disease
The Enlightenment was a period of change for Europe as the people began to produce their own theories and ideas on how the world worked. The Scientific revolution, as it was known, resulted in many discoveries in physics, biology, chemistry and so on, for example, the concave lens was created in 1451. Another important development of the Enlightenment was the change in religious perspective as the people of Europe began to question and deduce that what they did not understand was not always an act of God. The Enlightenment also sparked the flames of revolution in that, society began to question the monarchy, although there would not be a change in government for quite some time.
I call it the concave lens!!
As you can see the whole world endured change, especially Europe, often for the better, including changes brought on by the Renaissance, the Reformation, Columbian Exchange and the Enlightenment/Scientific revolution. The Renaissance paved the way for many of these other events as people began to question the bubble they lived in and create new, more nuanced ways in which to express themselves and their ideas. The Reformation was brought about by one of these more in depth thinkers in an attempt to make a change to the corrupt Church of the time. The new connection the world had developed during the Columbian Exchange allowed for those who knew how to capitalize on new trade routes to grow and begin to shape themselves into what they are today. Finally, the Enlightenment was a very productive period of time when people began to realize they could think for themselves instead of being herded like sheep to do as the Church and Monarchy wished.