By the early 1800s China weakened, and Japan took over China, in the 1890s.
China was furious, this anger fueled a revolution in 1911. Chiang Kai-shek was formed to be their new Nationalist Government.
Chaing's rival, Mao Zedong, he gained support from Chinese farmer, he also believed in communism. After years of civil war, they set up the People's Republic of China.
After 1949, China became "two Chinas" - one was the island of Taiwan (which became the Republic of China) and the other was mainland China. On the mainland they set up an unlimited government, in the 1950s.
In the late 1950s, Mao Zedong introduced the Great Leap Forward. His goal was to increase the industrial output, in China. During China's Cultural Revolution in the late 1960s, doctors, teachers, and students had to work on farms.