Abd al-Rahmad was the last survivng Umayyad prince and founded an Umayyad dynasty. H emade an idependent state called al-Andalus. Cordoba was the capitital and it was known for its huge library with many books. In Cordoba there was religeous tolerence meaning that anyone could practice the religeon they wanted to.
The Ottomoms had a leader named Osman and he led to Ottomans expasion of territory. The capital of the Ottoman Empire was Istanbul and it also became the center of their highly efficent government. The Ottomans greatest Sultan was Suleyman I . He led a very powerful army and conqured parts of nothern Africa and Eastern Europe. Suleyman was also a celebrated poet. The Ottoman Empire lasted into the 1900s. Religeous tolerence and other reasons kept it going for a little longer.
Science and Philosophy
The Safavids were rivals of the Ottoman Empire. The arose when they had a leader named Ismail who took the title from a Persian King. There was a battle between the Safavids and the Ottomans that lasted more than 100 years. The Safavid Empire was located in the center of two trading routes. They were also very wealthy.
Archetecture, Art, Literature
The Mudhals were nomads from Central Asia and invaded India. ¨In 1526, troops headed by a Mughal leader named Bubar swept out of Central Asia and conqured north and central India.¨ In 1556 a leader named Akbar the great became leader at 13 years of age. He lead them to a golden age allowing different religeons and mixed two religions.
The mathematics of Islam is very important. Muslim Scholars looked through intrests of mathematicians such as Euclid and Archimedes. They used stars to tell when there were religeous ceremonies and for navigation. The Muslims followed the Qur´an and made hospitals for the sick. The physicians made all different medicines for the peopole who were sick.
There was a lot of beautiful art in writings and buildings. A mosque has a large dome on the top of it and had one or more minarets. ¨These extremely tall, slender towers were designed to dominate the skyline and call attention to the importance of the mosque.¨ Inside of the dome was a prayer hall. There were no statues inside of a mosque because it imatese the action of God creating everything.