U.S ships arrived with frequency, bringing traders and missionaries. Many of those missionaries came from New England. The British came to Hawaii to spread Christianity
European powers out of Hawaii became a principle foreign policy goal. Americans acquired a true foothold in Hawaii. Later, the foothold resulted in the Sugar Trade/Industry
In 1874, Kalakaua became King. At this time, Americans had control over Hawaii's land and economy. However, the King was nationalistic, and he promised to put his native Hawiians back into power. In 1875, he negotiated a treaty that allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter the United States tax free.
We shall make this treaty happen!
In 1886, conflicts between American business leaders and the King escalated. The U.S.wanted the port of Pearl Harbor in exchange for renewing the sugar treaty. However, the King refused to give up any part of Hawaii. The Hawaiian league forced King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution at gun point in July 1887. The King called it the Bayonet Constitution which restricted his power and deprived most Hawaiians of the rote.
I would rather not give up what Hawaii has!
After King Kalakaua died in 1891, his sister Liliuokalani became queen. Queen Liliuokalani was a Hawaiian national who wanted to do away with the bayonet constitution. In Jan. 1893, she announced her plan to restore the power of the Hawaiian monarchy. Then rebels declared an end to the monarchy. On January 17, 1893, the Queen surrendered under protest
After being troubled by the events in Hawaii, President Glover Cleveland put the treaty on hold ad ordered an investigation. The investigators report condemned the revolt against Liliuokalani and proposed restoring her to the throne. Cleveland was unwilling to use military force to back Liliuokalani. Yet, he would not support annexation either. The matter remained at a standstill until the next president, William McKinley took office. McKinley favored annexation, and congress voted its approval in 1898. Hawaii then became an American territory and eventually in 1959, the fiftieth state.