WHY AM I UP HERE?! Um, rule of law is the idea where a president or someone of high power has to obey laws the rule of law was in the constitution probably because of their past experiences with Britain.
OH NO IM FALLING AHHH SEPERATION OF POWERS IS WHERE A GOVERNMENT IS SPLIT UP INTO 3 GOVERNMENTS SO 1 GOVERNMENT DOESN'T HAVE TOO MUCH POWER LEGISLATIVE MAKES LAWS, EXECUTIVE CARRIES OUT THOSE LAWS AND JUDICIAL HEARS FEDERAL CASES AND IM GONNA DIE
Oh thank god I'm alive, I never even finished what I was saying! Checks and balances was a system to stop one branch of government taking all the power and going crazy. It lets the other branches have power over eachother so they can stop this, they need approval from other things before being able to use their power like for example, Article 1 of the constitution makes the president approve what they are doing and Article 2 makes the senate approve if theres a peace treaty involved.