A big river ran through Ancient Sumer. Sumerians bulit a complex irrigation system out of it, of it, that included dams, reservoirs and canals that ran through crops and city-states. Sumerians also invented the plow. This tool was pulle dby an ox through crops to make holes in the ground for planting.. This allowed farmers to prepare land for palnting much quicker. plows are still used today.
Ancient Sumer was ruled by kings. Sumerians believed the gods supported their kings. Government officials ruled outlying towns, and Scribes recorded laws. There were 3 social levels in Sumer. The highest level was made up of kings, nobles, government officials, and priests. Artisans, merchants, and farmers made up the middle class. Slaves were on the bottom level.
Sumerians tried to please their gods in everything they did. Religion helped people connect with one another. Sumerians constructed ziggurats, which were temple towers, for the gods. Many believed the gods lived in these ziggurats. Sumerians also made statues of people worshipping the gods, so that the gods would see their obedience and devotion.
Art was highly valued in Ancient Sumer. There were metalworkers, who made objects such as cups, weapons, mirrors, and jewelry. There were also sculptors, who carved statues, and architects, who designed temples and ziggurats. Musicians played instruments such as the Lyre to please the gods.
Sumer's most important technological advancement was the wheel. Wheels were first used by Sumerian potters as a surface for shaping clay. But then, people discoveredthe wheel could roll on it's side, and usedd that discovery to make wheeled carts and chariots. Before the wheel, Sumerians used Sledges, wich were flat bottomed carts. Another technological advencement Sumerians made was the arch.
Sumerians created their own language, called Cuneiform, wich is Latin for 'wedge'. It is called that because Sumerians wrote by etching writing into clay tablets using a wedge-shaped stylus. Cuneiform was craeted around 3300 B.C.E to record trade information. Cuneiform was made up of 700-2000 pictoggrams, wich are symbols that stand for objects. The number of pictograms changed over time. Scribes were people who wrote down documents.