The Protestant Reformation began when Martin Luther made a list of complaints because the pope was selling indulgences. After this, people began to question the pope's authority.
Due to the changes of the Church, new forms of Christianity started to form. For example, Martin Luther came up with Lutharism and John Calvin came up with Calivnism Even the King started his own branch of Christianity.
Lutharism allows you to get your own to salvation and means you don't buy your way our of purgatory.
The Catholic Church responded by writing a list of rules declaring that selling indulgences is forbidden. It also explains that only the Church and the Pope can interpret the bible, along with other rules related to former Church issues. This settled the issues and helped the church keep the people who were doubting them in the Catholic Church.
Due to the 95 theses, we have democracy. Also, the government can't have full control over us because the 95 theses gave us limited government. The 95 theses also gave us free inquiry, or free speech, so people were allowed to have their own opinions, religions, and other basic individual beliefs.