The extreme long shot is a type of shot that establishes scenery along with the location that the upcoming scene will take place at. For example, by using this long shot the viewer can tell that the upcoming scene will take place in a house within a big city. This shot can also be used to wow the viewer.
The long shot shows the characters full bodies and will show a little bit of the setting in the background. This shot is normally shown after the extreme long shot and is a lot of times the beginning of a scene. For example, this shows a full room and shows the characters actions along with what there saying. The long shot is also used for a walk and talk.
Extreme Close Up
A medium shot contains just the upper half of the characters. The medium shot is used for most of the movie and is where dialogue takes place. In medium shots the background is sometimes blurred to really put emphasis on the characters. For example, the character here is yelling to the other character across the room.
Cut away/Cut in
The close up shot takes up a characters whole face and nothing else. The close up shot is normally used to convey emotion. The close up shot can also be very good for a reaction of a character when something drastic happens.
The extreme close up zooms in on a specific feature of a person or object(normally a person). This type of shot will show the audience exactly what you might want them to see and will show a distinct feature. In this case, the shot is showcases the eyes and expression of the characters face.
The cut away shot is when the shot cuts away from the current story to give emphasis on a specific object. The cut away shot is not a person but is instead an object that is involved with the story. The cut away shot can also do storytelling by providing foreshadowing.