Since conditions in the factories were extremely harsh for workers and they were receiving very low wages, Father George Gapon formed the Assembly of Russian workers to put a stop to this. He created a petition that thousands of workers signed and grouped together to present to Czar Nicholas II. However, when they arrived at the Winter Palace, they were attacked by police. Because over 400 workers were either killed or injured, this event became known as Bloody Sunday.
Local protests sparked a general uprising known as the March Revolution which forced Czar Nicholas II to give up his thrown. A provisional government was established by the Duma but was not a strong enough government to successfully replace him.
Vladimir Lenin became the leader of the Bolsheviks and gained the support of peasants, workers, and soldiers by promising them "Peace, Land, and Bread." In 1917 they attacked the provisional government in Petrograd and seized control of the government in what was known as the October Revolution.
Soon after the Bolsheviks took power, a civil war broke out in Russia. The two main forces were the Red Army, the communists that supported the Bolsheviks, and the pro-imperialist White Army. In the end, the Red Army won because they were more organized.
After assassination attempts on Lenin, the Communist government instituted the Red Terror, which was a campaign of mass killings, torture and oppression on all those who opposed the Bolsheviks. The secret police enforced this and arrested anyone they thought opposed the government.
Lenin died on January 21, 1924 at age 53 from what most historians believe to be a stroke induced by the bullet that was still in his neck from an assassination attempt. In his last days, he warned Russia about Joseph Stalin, who would later rise to power and become a power hungry leader.