Prosperity doth best discover vice, but adversity doth best discover virtue.
I think, therefor I am.
Nicolaus Copernicus, like the other Renaissance scholars, were studying the Geocentric theory. However, he had doubted the ideas regarding errors, especially in calculations, spotted in the text; inspire him to propose the new idea of heliocentric.
In 1543, couples months before he died, Copernicus published " On the Revolution Celestial Spheres", in the fear of being ridiculed. Oppositely, the certain group of people was fascinated by the ideas with the will to prove it, these people are called natural philosophers.
Consultant's Report on Copernicanism
I don't know guys.
Records of Copernicus and Galileo bravery, by opposing the crucial critics from the societies, had inspired the two fathers of Scientific Revolutions' morals. The methods of Francis Bacon's empiricism, mentioned in "Novum Organum Scientiarum" (1620), and Rene Descartes' skepticism, recorded in "Discourse on the Method" (1637), had formed the well-developed method to conduct good paradigms using experiments and logic, in which, had advanced the methods from the old knowledge where there were only fundamental truths.
Innovators of Intellects
Without further ados, Galileo descended the ideas from Copernicus and proved it with deeper mathematic calculations and more detailed observations, as detail as the surface of the moon, from the help of a more advanced instrument called telescope. He disperses the ideas by publishing his first book in Italian called "The Starry Messenger", in 1610, in Florence.
After a while, people started to raise questions about the heliocentric concept and the Bible. Galileo had failed to answer, while the church started to be aware of its shaken authorities. Thence, Galileo was called before the Father of Theologian, in the Holy Office for twice, in 1616 and 1634, where he had been forced to take an oath of not to defend the heliocentric's ideas anymore; but Galileo had tried his best to defend the ideas until he reached his limit and sentenced to be under the house arrest.
Then, is the Church and the Bible is unreliable?
With these morals and concepts of conducting a good method and precise observations from Descartes and Bacon, Isaac Newton was ready to discover new concepts based on his observations and the existed model from previous natural philosophers which included Galileo and Copernicus. In which he had found more forces and laws conducting the orbiting round called "gravitational force" that existed on earth as well as between the planets; there are more paradigms included in his "Principia Mathematica" (1687).