The Bishop was church leader in the kingdom and managed an area called a diocese. The Church was very powerful in most of Medieval Europe, this made the Bishop powerful as well. The church received 10 percent from all the people. This made some Bishops rich.
The top leader in the land was the king. When a king died, his firstborn son would inherit the throne. When one family stayed in power for a long time, this was called a dynasty.
The lords ran the local manors. They also were the king's knights and could be called into battle at any moment. The lords owned everything on their land including the peasants, crops, and village.
Feudalism arose in Europe because of the need for a way to pull society back together after the Roman Empire collapsed in the West. They justified and maintained power by building huge castles
The king's knights were lords and could be called into battle at any moment.
Most of the people living in the Middle Ages were peasants who had a rough life. Some peasants were free and could own their own businesses like carpenters, bakers, and blacksmiths, others were more like slaves. They owned nothing and were pledged to a lord. They worked long days, 6 days a week, and often barely had enough food to survive.