Plate Tectonics

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  • My theory is that continents can drift apart from one another and have done so in the past.
  • Alfred Wegner
  • Transform Boundary- When two plates slide past one another horizontally
  • Shearing- When two plates slide past one another horizontally Tension- Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch and object Fault- The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other Strike-slip fault- Occurs when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally
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  • Fault
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  • Convergent Boundary- When two plates push into one another
  • Subduction zone- Region where oceanic plate sinks into the asthenosphere Oceanic crust- Similar to basalt and averages 5 to 8 km thick (denser than continental crust) Continental crust- Similar to granite and averages 30 km thick (less dense) Density- The degree of compactness in a substance
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  • Convection current- Very hot material which rises, cools, then sinks, reheats, and repeats the process Mid-atlantic ridge- Underwater mountain chains that run through Earth's ocean basins Seafloor spreading- The process by which new oceanic lithosphere is created as older material is pulled away
  • Divergent Boundary- When two plates move away from one another
  • Epicenter- The location where all 3 circles overlap Triangulation- When 3 circles are drawn Seismograph- Instruments located at or near the surface of the Earth that record seismic waves P-wave- Primary waves/ Fastest and always ahead of the S waves/ Travels through solids, liquids, and gases/ Move back and forth between a squeezed position and a stretched position S-wave- Secondary,slower,and solid waves/ Waves shear rock back and forth as they travel through it/ Shearing stretches parts of the rock sideways from other parts/ Travel through solids
  • Earthquake- Plates pushing, pulling, or scraping
  • Volcano- A mountain that forms when molten (called magma) is forced to Earth's surface
  • Ring of fire- Many volcanoes surrounding the Pacific plate is known as the "Ring of Fire" Explosive- Clouds of hot debris and gas shoot out of the volcano instead of producing lava flows Nonexplosive- Creates lava flows Shield Volcanoes- Built out of layers of lava from repeated nonexplosive eruptions/The lava is very runny and overtime, the lava creates a volcano with gently sloping slides and can become massive Cinder Volcanoes- Small cones made entirely of pyroclastic material from moderately explosive eruptions/ Steeper slopes and a narrower base Composite Volcanoes- Known as stratovolcanoes and are the most common type of volcano/ Form by explosive eruptions/ Alternating explosive and nonexplosive
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