for the federal government, was to regard the tribes simultaneously as independent nations and as wards of the president, and to negotiate treaties with them that were solemnly ratified by the senate.
Indian Hunting and "Ghost Dance"
the white Angelo's relentless slaughtering of the buffalo herds that supported the tribes' way of life. Whites hunted the buffalo for food, leather, and fur. the ecological changes accompanying white settlement the reduction, and in some areas virtual disappearance, of the open plains, also discriminated the buffalo population
Indians fought the white populations as they started to threaten their civilization in the 1850's-180's. Sand Creek massacre occurred in eastern Colorado as the white people gathered a militia and began their campaign, killed a 133 people 105 that were women and children.
It was unofficial violence by white vigilantes who engaged in what became known as Indian hunting. For some whites it became like a sport to track down and kill Indians. Wovoka founded a spiritual movement called the Ghost Dance.
Wounded Knee, located on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota, was the site of two conflicts between North American Indians and representatives of the U.S. government. An 1890 massacre left some 15 0Native Americans dead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux.
The Dawes Act provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land and the allotment of tracts to individual owners.