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Updated: 2/19/2020
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  • Discontent arose due to the fact that peninsulares held more political power, the fact that Spain's mercantilism required colonists to buy goods only from Spain, and a desire for more power from mestizos and creoles.
  • Simón Bolívar pushed Enlightenment ideals in Latin America, and would later prove important to the independence of Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, and Bolivia.
  • In the Jamaica Letter, Bolívar outlined his goals and concerns for Latin America, while also exploring the future of new nations after the collapse of the Spanish Empire.
  • Jamaica Letter (1815)
  • Armies loyal to generals resulted in the rise of caudillos, who were strong, local leaders with power bases, allowing them to intervene in politics and governments.
  • Even though the new nations in Latin America abolished slavery and ended some social distinctions, their governments were often conservative.
  • The creoles began to form a powerful and conservative upper class, excluding the indigenous. Women also gained very little and were unable to enter contracts or vote.
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