Discontent arose due to the fact that peninsulares held more political power, the fact that Spain's mercantilism required colonists to buy goods only from Spain, and a desire for more power from mestizos and creoles.
Simón Bolívar pushed Enlightenment ideals in Latin America, and would later prove important to the independence of Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, and Bolivia.
In the Jamaica Letter, Bolívar outlined his goals and concerns for Latin America, while also exploring the future of new nations after the collapse of the Spanish Empire.
Jamaica Letter (1815)
Armies loyal to generals resulted in the rise of caudillos, who were strong, local leaders with power bases, allowing them to intervene in politics and governments.
Even though the new nations in Latin America abolished slavery and ended some social distinctions, their governments were often conservative.
The creoles began to form a powerful and conservative upper class, excluding the indigenous. Women also gained very little and were unable to enter contracts or vote.