the crusades began as a response to a threat posed by the seljuks many emperors appealed to the pope urban ll and the seljuks were within 100 miles of constantinople the byzantine capital and in response the pope invited nobles and church officials from clermont
Soon the Crusaders found a way over the walls, and Antioch fell to the Christians. In 1099, the Crusaders surrounded Jerusalem and scaled the city walls. After a month of fighting, the city surrendered. The victorious Crusaders killed most of the people who had fought against them. They established four Crusader kingdoms in Palestine, Syria, and modern-day Lebanon and Turkey.
A army from Germany was badly defeated in Anatolia A second army, led by the king of France, arrived in Jerusalem in 1148. About 50,000 Crusaders marched on the city of Damascus, which was on the way to Edessa
By the 1180s, the great sultan Salah al-Din became there new leader. In 1191, Richard's army forced the surrender of the Palestinian town of Acre. Afterward, arrangements were made between the two sides to exchange prisoners.
young peasants from France and Germany marched in a Children's Crusade Crusaders fought against Muslims in Europe and North Africa, as well as in the Middle East. One important series of wars was called the Reconquista Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand wanted to unite Spain as a Catholic country. They used the Inquisition, a Roman Catholic court, against Muslims and Jews, as well as those who claimed to have converted to Christianity.