Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in 1607, when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic Ocean
After twice being turned back by ice Hudson went on a third voyage this time of the Dutch East India Company in 1609.
On a fourth and final voyage, undertaken for England in 1610-11, Hudson spent months drifting through the vast Hudson Bay and eventually fell victim to a mutiny by his crew. Hudson’s discoveries laid the groundwork for Dutch colonization of the Hudson River region, as well as English land claims in Canada.
They traveled east along the edge of the polar ice pack until they reached the Svalbard archipelago well north of the Arctic Circl before hitting ice and being forced to turn back.
While enduring harsh winter conditions with no outlet to the Pacific in sight, some crewmembers grew restless and hostile, suspecting Hudson of hoarding rations to give to his favorites.