See these pillars behind us? Three of those can be seen on the Georgia Flag. They represent the legislative branch, the Judicial branch, and the executive. Around these pillars are the words wisdom, justice, and moderation. The word wisdom reminds the legislative branch to be wise in creating laws, the justice helps the Judicial branch to make just decisions, and moderation urges the executive branch to carry out the laws calmly.
Here in the General Assembly, where the State Senate and representatives work, there are certain qualifications people have to meet in order to be elected. They first must have a legal U.S citizenship, must have had a Georgia citizenship for two years, and must have legal residence in their district for two years. Senators must be at least 25 and representatives must be at least 21. No one in the military may be a part of this office. They both serve two year terms but no consecutive terms, They are elected in general elections in their local district. These elections happen on even numbered years. There is a session that begins on the second Monday in January and lats for 40 days but for the rest of the terms the duties take place in special sessions. even though most powers are shared, only representatives can introduce bills and only the Senate may determine the guilt or innocence of impeached officers.
The House speaker is elected from among the members of the house and acts as a head of the House of Representatives. The lieutenant Governor works over the senate, and is elected by Georgians in a statewide election by popular vote. They both appoint committees that focus on different issues and bills presented to them. A lot of work done in GA General Assembly happens here and both houses use the committees to study bills before returning them to the members.
Every representative works on 2-3 committees that work with public safety, education, agriculture, transportation, etc. There are about 26 of these committees in the Senate. The Senator is a member of at least three committees, and the lieutenant governor choose each of the committee's chairs.
The Governor is responsible for enforcing the laws, appointing people to state offices, suggesting new state programs, signing bills into laws, and directing the state budget. They also have the power to veto legislation or call them into special sessions, they're the commander in chief for the military as well. The Lieutenant governor on the other hand is responsible for deciding on committee memberships and chooses the chairs. They're also responsible for jobs given to them by the Governor.
While both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor must meet the same qualifications to run and are both elected by popular vote, they do not run on the same ballot. While the Governor is only allowed to run for a total of eight years, the Lieutenant has no limit on the number of terms.