His strong leadership preserved umayyad power,and all of Muslim Spain was united under his rule by 933. Its vast prayer hall could hold over 50,000 worshippers and is famous for its hundreds of soaring arches. In 1492,the Christians captured Granada , Spain's last Muslim city, ending almost 800 years of Muslim rule in western Europe.
Suleyman l ruled the Ottoman empire at the height of its power and grandeur, from 1520 to 1566.he led a powerful navy and a large army well -equipped with guns and cannons.Many"people of book, " or jews and Christians, played important roles in the Ottoman Empire.
Science and Philosophy
The Safavids a Shi'ite dynasty , became rivals of the Sunni Ottomans.The Safavid Empire arose when a youthful leader named Ismail united the Persian Kingdoms into a Independent state the in 1501. The Safavids and Ottomans went on to fight a longwar that lasted more 100 years.
Architecture, the Arts, and literature
The Mughals were nomads from Central Asia who invaded India.In 1526,troops headed by a Mughalleader named Babur swept out of CentralAsia and conquered north and central India.Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire,which eventually streched across almost the entire subcontinent.
The Muslim quest for knowledge helped make the form of medicinepracticed in Muslim lands the most advanced in the world.Muslim scholars also built upon ancient learning to extend their understandingof the universe. Medieval times, which spanned from the 500s to the 1500s, saw the rise and fall of many Muslim empires.
In medieval Islamic civilization, beautiful writing appeared not only in books but also in buildings.Besides distinctive architecture and art,medieval Islamic civilization also produced significant worksof literature.The inside of a mosque also had distinctive features.