The Netherlands was home to 2 major universities. One was the University of Leiden. It was the largest universities out of all the protestant ones in the world. The other was the University of Groningen. It was also a large school, but unlike the first one, half of the students were foreigners. Churches couldn't control the intellectual life of the Dutch because the provinces were separated into 7 different parts.
The Netherlands produced 2 world renowned artists in Rembrandt and Jan Vermeer. One of the most famous paintings Rembrandt created was "The Night Watch." The Dutch art was unique in 3 main ways: politics, religion, and money. The did not paint political figures at all since they're a republic. They painted more secular things, meaning they painted every day life such as children playing. Some artists also painted traders while the were out at sea who paid them to paint the explorer and their adventures