In 1816, Zulu chief Shaka created a centralized state using good military. He refused to accept British rule, so the British invaded. Zulus lost the battle, and gave in.
In 1853, a war broke out between the Russians and the Ottomans called the Crimean War. Britain and France combined forces with the Ottomans to defeat Russia.
The Suez Canal was a human-made waterway that cut through the Isthmus of Suez & allowed Britain quicker access to its colonies in Africa and Asia. It opened in 1869 with huge international celebration.
In 1884, 14 European nations met to lay down rules for the division of Africa to prevent conflict. This was called the Berlin Conference. No African ruler was invited to attend this meeting, even though the conference sealed Africa's fate.
In 1896, the Battle of Adowa occurred. This was one of the greatest battles in African history. This battle was led by Menelik ll, and the Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians & kept their nation independent.
The Boer war in 1899 was between the British and the Boers. The British burned down Boer farms and and imprisoned Africans in concentration camps. Over 14,000 died.