Behavior of the Sun's light when hitting different Mediums
The Earth's rotation is when the Earth spins around on its axis an imaginary line which an object rotates on. Earth's rotation is a cycle that repeats every 24 hours 12 in the day and 12 in the night. So when it's day in half of the world it's night in the other half. It can be confused with revolution but the difference is revolution means go around something while rotation means spinning. The atmosphere is not affected by the Earth's rotation.
Behavior of the Sun's Light when hitting different Mediums
The effect of the Earth's rotation is day and night. The atmosphere is not affected by the Earth's rotation.
When the light energy from the sun hits different mediums different things can happen. Here are a few examples. When sunlight hits a road or any other opaque object the object absorbs the light creating a shadow. When sunlight hits glass it transmits because the glass is transparent/translucent. The composition of glass is just sand heated to a very high temperature. When sunlight hits a mirror it reflects which is why you see a reflection in a mirror.
When sunlight hits water and refracts or bends. this is why when you stick a pencil into water it appears broken