Europe was mainly rural areas before the Industrial Revolution. The main source of work was farming until the fields were turned into factories.
At the start of the Industrial Revolution factories began to sprout up as well as more homes for workers.
Farmers moved to cities to work in factories in order to earn a higher wage, which created more tightly packed living conditions.
Men, women and children worked in factories for many hours without breaks, and bad pay. Working conditions were dangerous and unsafe for the common worker.
Full families also worked in coal mines. Alike to the factories, wage was low. Working conditions were unsafe and people often contracted diseases from the coal dust.
More factories and businesses sprouted throughout the Industrial Revolution. People began revolting against the unsafe working conditions and more and more people moved into towns and cities, creating very tightly packed living spaces.