The Articles of Confederation was not working, so delegates were invited to come together in 1787 in hope to form "a more perfect union." The Constitutional Convection met for the first time on May 25th, in the Independence Hall. They elected George Washington as president of the convection. They discussed the important task of revising the Articles of Confederation. The soon decided to throw out the Articles of Confederation and write and new constitution.
People or property?
The problem was they didn't know what the power should come from in this new constitution: people, or states? The Virginia Plan had the government represent people/population. The New Jersey Plan had the government represent states, not people so smaller states wouldn't get "swallowed up" by bigger states.
They will elect our governments leaders.
Finally, a compromise was proposed. In one house, the House of Representatives, represented people. In this house the number of representatives would be based on a states population. In the other house, the Senate, states were represented. This became known as the Great Compromise.
The second difficult question they faced was how slaves should be counted: as people or property? After a long debate, a compromise was proposed. It was to count each slave as three fifths of a person, when determining a states population. It was approved by the delegates and was known a the Three-Fifths Compromise.
Another major question was how should the chief executive be elected? After a vote on the issue, they reached another compromise. Neither Congress or the people would choose the president or vice president. A special group called the Electoral College would elect the government's leaders.
The new plan still had to be accepted by the states before any of these compromises could take effect. Nine out of the thirteen states would have to ratify the Constitution before it took effect. Reasons the Federalists believed they should ratify it were that it would create a strong national government that would unite the states, it would create a stronger Union of the states, and that the powers that they had were limited so it would not threaten their freedom.