The New Jersey plan was proposed with small states in mind. William Peterson proposed a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally.
The Virginia Plan was proposed with larger states in mind. The initial proposal was made for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature (two houses) dominated by the big states.
Plan with a bicameral legislature; first house chosen by the people, second house, senators who serve a life term. More executive power.
Compromise between northern and southern states that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives. This solved the issue of the northerners not having slaves to count in their population.
The Electoral College was established to help in electing the president and vice-president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates. This solved the issue of the population, ruled by what the majority thinks, directly electing the President or governing bodies.
The Connecticut Compromise established a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators. This solved the debate about representation in government.