The Crimean War was between the Russians and the Ottomans over Crimea, a strategic location of land around the Black Sea. The two nations were at war due to the geographic location of Crimea. To help defeat a common enemy, the Russians, the British and the French joined the Ottomans. Eventually, with the help of the British and the French, the Ottomans were able to defeat the Russians.
The Sepoy Mutiny(1857)
Though the Sepoy Mutiny was a major event in Indian history, the rebellion was not successful. The British turned to direct control because of the mutiny, which made the situation even worse.
ImperialismExtending a country's rule for power, resources, and geographic location by military force and diplomacy.
The outbreak, marked as the turning point in Indian history, called the Sepoy Mutiny occurred because of constant racism expressed by the British and the constant attempts to convert the Hindus and Muslims to Christians. Rumors spread that rifle cartridges were greased with beef and pork fat given by soldiers. About 85 of the 90 Sepoy (Indian soldiers) refused because of religious reasons. The refusals cost them greatly, those who refused were imprisoned in jail, which resulted in the rebellion called the Sepoy Mutiny. In the rebellion, the Sepoy marched to Delhi and with the help of the Indian soldiers of Delhi, they captured the city. After Delhi was captured, the rebellion continued to spread to northern and central India.
The Berlin Conference was a conference held by Otto van Bismark, the then German Chancellor, where 14 nations (12 European nations, the Ottoman Empire and the United States) met to set rules on how to divide Africa without any bloodshed between nations, not including Africa. The rules of dividing Africa consisted of notifying other nations when a nation will conquer an area in Africa and also to prove that the nations is capable of ruling the conquered land. Though the rules were decided on the division of Africa, Africans were not included causing many rebellions and bloodshed in the near future.
Ethiopia was the only country in Africa that was able to successfully resist the Europeans. Ethiopia defeated the Italian in the Battle of Adowa, the greatest battle in African history. The success of Ethiopia was due to the emperor of Ethiopia in 1889 named Menelik II. The Italians, French, and British wanted Ethiopia to be apart of their spheres of influence. Menelik seized the opportunity and turned the nations against each other, so in the meantime he could prepare Ethiopia to fight. The cause of the battle was the betrayal, Menelik signed a treaty with Italy, but in 1889, Menelik discovered Italy was betraying Ethiopia, so Menelik declared war.
The Battle of Adowa(1896)
The Boer War was between the British and the Boers, Dutch settlers, over South Africa, land containing diamonds and gold. To avoid bloodshed and battles, the Boers moved north when the British took over the Cape Colony, and the two clashed over British policies regarding land and slaves. After gold and diamonds were discovered, there were attempts to rebel against the Boers. The Boers blamed the British which resulted in the Boer War. Multiple tactics were used in the war including, burning land, guerrilla tactics, and imprisoning women and children in concentration camps. Despite the efforts of the Boers to win, the British won and the Boers joined the Union of South Africa controlled by the British.
The Boer War(1889)
The Great Game was a race between Britain and Russia to claim Muslim land in Central Asia. Both nations wanted to extend their empires which resulted in a geopolitical struggle. During the Great Game, Afghanistan became the center of their struggles, since the country was between the two empires. Afghanistan was controlled by the British from 1881 to 1921. Meanwhile the Soviet Union signed a peace treaty with the country that lasted until 1979.