Thomas Jefferson Demands Madison to Reject the Appointment
Reject the Appointment!
What do I do?
On the weeks of John Adams's presidency, he began to appoint as many federalist justices in the court system as possible in hopes to make it difficult for Thomas Jefferson to make any changes in the government. These were called the Midnight Judges.
William Marbury Declares it Unconstitutional
Appoint me! Or else it won't be constitutional!
Is it or is it not constitutional?
One of the Midnight Judges to be assigned, William Marbury, had paperwork that was not signed/given to Madison in time for it to be official since Adams left office.
John Marshall Reviews the Case
As president now, Thomas Jefferson demanded that Madison, the Secretary of State, reject the appointment since he was legally president and did not want anymore federalists to be judges.
Judicial Review is Established
Opposing Thomas Jefferson, William Marbury stated that if he wasn't appointed, the act would be unconstitutional.
John Marshall, one of the midnight judges, agreed to review the case. He looked back at old laws and the Constitution which lead to him ruling in Jefferson's favor.
Madison & Jefferson
This event established the power, Judicial Review, in the national court system, in which they can decide whether cases are unconstitutional.