In 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the church. This is called the Protestant Reformation.
The Protestant Reformation occurred because Martin Luther and many thought the church was wrong. Since many of the priest were unholy and the church didn't really follow its teachings.
Martin Luther believed the pope was too powerful and the people deserve to read the bible in their language. Do the people need priests he said, and should the church be taking so much money from the poor and the people.
He printed out Bibles in many languages!!!
Many people agreed with Martin Luther and left the church saying it was unholy and disagreed with their teachings. This impacted the church because they lost many members, but also the church was able to fix the imag of their church and define their teachings.
The Church responded to the reformation by deciding to hold a council called the Council of Trent in 1545. The Council was held in 3 parts between 1545 - 1563, and its purpose was to discuss the Church and how to fix the issues it had.
Today the Church has divided and have separate beliefs from the Protestants. The Catholic church today has fixed its corrupt and unfaithful system, and does not belove in sola scriptura (scripture alone) or sola fide (faith alone). They believe faith and works go together. There are also seven sacraments, not just two as the protestant believe in. The pope is the main leader of the Catholic church, and there are many differences but those are some of the differences between Protestants and Catholics.