In the 1820's, U.S ships began to arrive with frequency, they brought traders and missionaries. Most missionaries came from New England to convert Hawaiians to Christianity. Eventually, the missionaries and their families settled down and grew crops, consisting mostly of sugarcane.
In 1874, Kalakaua became king. During this time, Americans gained control of Hawaii's land and economy. Kalakaua was greatly nationalistic. He resented American's influence over his government and promised he would put native Hawaiians into power again.
In 1890, Congress approved the McKinley tariff that raised import rates on foreign sugar. Hawaiian sugar planters were being undersold in the American market, this caused depression to sweep the islands. Sugar growers who are mostly white Americans, knew if Hawaii could be annexed by the United States, the tariff problem would eventually disappear.
In 1891, Kalakaua died. His sister, Liliuokalani, became Queen. Liliuokalani was a Hawaiian nationalist who wanted to get rid of the bayonet constitution.
In 1893, Grover Cleveland became inaugurated president. He withdrew the annexation treaty from the Senate and ordered investigation on potential wrongdoings. He aimed to restore Queen Liliuokalani to her throne but American public sentiment strongly pointed towards annexation.
President Grover Cleveland
Hawaii became American territory and in 1959, Hawaii became the 15th state.